synthesis Archive

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Alan Wilson

ENFOLDing is led by Professor Sir Alan Wilson. From an early background in Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Alan Wilson has pioneered the use of spatial interaction models for the description of regional and urban systems. Contact Alan at a.g.wilson@ucl.ac.uk
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Michael Batty

Michael Batty Michael Batty is a Co-Investigator on the ENFOLDing project. He is an established presence in the field of complexity science, having led the use of fractals and morphogenetic programming in city form generation.Contact Michael at m.batty@ucl.ac.uk
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Hannah Fry

Hannah Fry Hannah Fry is a Co-Investigator on the ENFLOLDing project and Lecturer in the Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis at UCL. She has a doctorate in mathematics and a background in fluid dynamics. More recently, her research has focused on complexity theory, particularly complex social and economic systems. She specialises in exploring the underlying dynamics of such systems, both at the local and global level, and in translating between various scales and hierarchies. Hannah will lead work on the global demonstration model, formulating a framework with which to link the outputs of the other workstreams.Contact Hannah at hannah.fry@ucl.ac.uk
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Anthony Korte

Anthony is a Research Associate currently working on spatial interaction and structural models relevant to global dynamics in the global demonstration model within the
Complexity Tools workstream of the ENFOLD-ing project. Contact Anthony at a.korte@ucl.ac.uk
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British Science Association Science Communication Conference

An early plug, then, for the British Science Association Science Communication Conference, taking place over the 25th and 26th of May here in London. The theme for this year is “online engagement”, featuring high-profile figures like Cory Doctorow talking about democratisation of technology, Sophia Collins talking about her wonderful “I’m a scientist” project, and slightly off-topic, Simon Singh discussing the well-known libel case launched against him by the British Chiropractic Asssociation.

Under the online engagement umbrella, I’ll be running a discussion session on science podcasting, featuring Ben Valsler from the enormously successful Naked Scientists, Elizabeth Hauke from DIY podcast Short Science, and Frank Dondelinger from the student-run Edinburgh Uni Science podcast. All of these panellists have unique perspectives about starting a new podcast, creating interesting and accessible content, finding a stylistic voice, and growing an audience, as well as the more technical aspects. Of course, being the live producer and a presenter on Sony Silver Award winning podcastAnswer me this!”, as well as live producer on UCLs Bright Club podcast and doing everything for my own music podcast, I will probably venture a few opinions over the course of the session.

The conference has a varied agenda, covering everything from engaging policymakers and diversifying your audience to using games and social media in science communication. The conference will take place on May 25th and 26th at King’s Place in London and you can register here.


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British Science Association Science Communication Conference

An early plug, then, for the British Science Association Science Communication Conference, taking place over the 25th and 26th of May here in London. The theme for this year is “online engagement”, featuring high-profile figures like Cory Doctorow talking about democratisation of technology, Sophia Collins talking about her wonderful “I’m a scientist” project, and slightly off-topic, Simon Singh discussing the well-known libel case launched against him by the British Chiropractic Asssociation.

Under the online engagement umbrella, I’ll be running a discussion session on science podcasting, featuring Ben Valsler from the enormously successful Naked Scientists, Elizabeth Hauke from DIY podcast Short Science, and Frank Dondelinger from the student-run Edinburgh Uni Science podcast. All of these panellists have unique perspectives about starting a new podcast, creating interesting and accessible content, finding a stylistic voice, and growing an audience, as well as the more technical aspects. Of course, being the live producer and a presenter on Sony Silver Award winning podcastAnswer me this!”, as well as live producer on UCLs Bright Club podcast and doing everything for my own music podcast, I will probably venture a few opinions over the course of the session.

The conference has a varied agenda, covering everything from engaging policymakers and diversifying your audience to using games and social media in science communication. The conference will take place on May 25th and 26th at King’s Place in London and you can register here.


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Rank Clocks: showing time as time

Showing data as a time series enables us to see “data paths” – to simultaneously observe past, present and future, and to begin to spot trends. However, sometimes overloading an already complex graphic with a persistent time series will make the graphic dense and unusable.

So what about representing time as time? Represent the passage of time via the updating of the graphic – essentially some form of animation (obviously, this isn’t possible for a static graphic, e.g. in a printed article). To my eyes, this can have the effect of accentuating dynamics and, by mapping time onto time, sometimes giving a more realistic sense of the process occurring, especially when related to spatial flows.

The example below is drawn from Mike Batty and Ollie O’Brien’s excellent recent work on Rank Clocks. The concept behind a rank clock is that of a polar time-series of “rank”. So, the time axis proceeds in a circle from 0 to 360 degrees, and the distance from the centre charts the value being measured. In a Rank Clock, the value being measured is the rank of something in a set of similar objects – so in the example below, the top 20 Japanese cities (by population) are plotted by rank. The lower the rank, the larger the rank value, and the further it appears from the centre – so Tokyo is 1st and appears close to the centre, the city which is 20th appears 20 times further from the centre.

Given that Rank Clocks have the word “clock” in the description, I wanted to animate it to map time onto time. As I said before, this has the effect of accentuating some of the fast dynamics – and it becomes immediately obvious how stable the biggest cities are well out of the long tail. The software offers tools for the user to select the rank range of interest (they can view all 300+ cities if desired, but messiness ensues), at what timepoint the colour scheme is decided, the speed of the sweep, and the background alpha value (see below).

The way the tool works is to draw a small circle for each data point in each frame, representing the rank value at each timepoint. In order to calculate the rank values between the actual datapoints, a simple linear interpolation is employed. So no actual data lines are drawn – what appear to be lines are just overlapping ellipses.

Setting the “alpha” value sets the transparency of a black box drawn over the whole data pane at each refresh – set this to a high value and the frame is refreshed completely each time, showing dots which represent the data at the current time; set this to zero, and each previously drawn frame will exist indefinitely, eventually plotting out the entire time behaviour. Intermediate values give the data points a comet-like tail, showing their recent past clearly, and their distant past dimly. These animations look like a frogspawn race, or possibly a cohort of sperm circling impotently around a central, elusive egg, and I rather like the aesthetic effect they produce.

This was written in Processing (with OPENGL and the ControlP5 toolbox to create control sliders), and this “alpha wipe” technique is one that’s very easy to use to to create these smooth transitions. Don’t use a “background(colour)” method – instead, at the top of your “void draw”, just add

fill(0, 0, 0, alpha);
noStroke();
rect(0, 0, width, height);

Setting alpha to the value you want. As I said, I allow user control of this variable. I use this technique A LOT for smoothing frame-to-frame transitions.

 


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Rank Clocks: showing time as time

Showing data as a time series enables us to see “data paths” – to simultaneously observe past, present and future, and to begin to spot trends. However, sometimes overloading an already complex graphic with a persistent time series will make the graphic dense and unusable.

So what about representing time as time? Represent the passage of time via the updating of the graphic – essentially some form of animation (obviously, this isn’t possible for a static graphic, e.g. in a printed article). To my eyes, this can have the effect of accentuating dynamics and, by mapping time onto time, sometimes giving a more realistic sense of the process occurring, especially when related to spatial flows.

The example below is drawn from Mike Batty and Ollie O’Brien’s excellent recent work on Rank Clocks. The concept behind a rank clock is that of a polar time-series of “rank”. So, the time axis proceeds in a circle from 0 to 360 degrees, and the distance from the centre charts the value being measured. In a Rank Clock, the value being measured is the rank of something in a set of similar objects – so in the example below, the top 20 Japanese cities (by population) are plotted by rank. The lower the rank, the larger the rank value, and the further it appears from the centre – so Tokyo is 1st and appears close to the centre, the city which is 20th appears 20 times further from the centre.

Given that Rank Clocks have the word “clock” in the description, I wanted to animate it to map time onto time. As I said before, this has the effect of accentuating some of the fast dynamics – and it becomes immediately obvious how stable the biggest cities are well out of the long tail. The software offers tools for the user to select the rank range of interest (they can view all 300+ cities if desired, but messiness ensues), at what timepoint the colour scheme is decided, the speed of the sweep, and the background alpha value (see below).

The way the tool works is to draw a small circle for each data point in each frame, representing the rank value at each timepoint. In order to calculate the rank values between the actual datapoints, a simple linear interpolation is employed. So no actual data lines are drawn – what appear to be lines are just overlapping ellipses.

Setting the “alpha” value sets the transparency of a black box drawn over the whole data pane at each refresh – set this to a high value and the frame is refreshed completely each time, showing dots which represent the data at the current time; set this to zero, and each previously drawn frame will exist indefinitely, eventually plotting out the entire time behaviour. Intermediate values give the data points a comet-like tail, showing their recent past clearly, and their distant past dimly. These animations look like a frogspawn race, or possibly a cohort of sperm circling impotently around a central, elusive egg, and I rather like the aesthetic effect they produce.

This was written in Processing (with OPENGL and the ControlP5 toolbox to create control sliders), and this “alpha wipe” technique is one that’s very easy to use to to create these smooth transitions. Don’t use a “background(colour)” method – instead, at the top of your “void draw”, just add

fill(0, 0, 0, alpha);
noStroke();
rect(0, 0, width, height);

Setting alpha to the value you want. As I said, I allow user control of this variable. I use this technique A LOT for smoothing frame-to-frame transitions.

 


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